vaccine

As COVID-19 is an entirely new disease, there will be many questions/doubts regarding it. Like many people, ask about what happens before, during, and after your appointment to get vaccinated. 

 

Before understanding how the COVID-19 vaccine works, let’s get an idea about how our body fights the disease. 

 

First, Know About Body’s Defense Against Infection!

When it enters the human body, the coronavirus starts to attack and multiple within the body itself. The virus's effect becomes strong with the passing time as the virus multiplies and increases its number.

 

This is the reason why the symptoms of COVID-19 get worse with time. The human immune system uses several tools to fight against such infection, such as red blood cells, which provide sufficient oxygen to the tissues and organs, and white blood cells that fight every harmful foreign element entering the body.

 

White blood cells are further categorized into three sub-categories that include:-

 

  • Macrophages: It is a part of white blood cells that swallows and digests the entered germs/dead or dying cells leaving the residue; Antigens behind. Our body identifies these antigens as dangerous and stimulates antibodies to attack them.
  • B-lymphocytes: They are the defensive antibodies that attack antigens left behind by the macrophages.
  • T-lymphocytes: It is the part of white blood cells that attack the cells in the already infected body.

 

When it comes to coronavirus, a human body needs all these three defensive cells to be active in order to defeat the infection. But unfortunately, it takes several days or weeks for the body to make all three germ-fighting cells to be active. By that time, the infection spreads vigorously, and in some humans, with severe health complications, it grows in an uncontrolled manner.

 

After getting infected, the body’s immune system understands the virus's behavior and learns about how to protect the body against the disease. T-lymphocyte cells, also called memory cells, store the identified infection data and come into quick action once the body reencounters the same virus.

 

Once the familiar infection is identified, all such white blood cells come into action as per the requirement. Like if the same antigens are identified inside the body, B-lymphocytes will come into action, attacking the antigens that are left behind by the macrophages.

 

Currently, experts have not concluded how long these T-lymphocytes will remember the COVID-19 infection.

 

What Does COVID-19 Vaccine Do To Human Body?

COVID-19 vaccine helps the human body by developing immunity to the virus causing coronavirus without getting ill. Different types of COVID-19 vaccine work differently to provide protection from the virus. But the main motive behind it is to increase the memory of T-lymphocytes so that the white blood cells will remember how to fight the infection for a longer period of time.

 

As it is an initial phase of the vaccine, it takes a few weeks after vaccination to develop an enhanced version of T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. Therefore, the chance of getting infected by the virus remains the same until the vaccine starts to develop enhanced immunity.

 

However, this is the reason why some people, after getting the vaccine, still get infected by the virus. This happens because the vaccine did not have enough time to provide protection. In some cases, the body may react differently, like high body temperature due to building immunity. Some people consider it as a side effect of the vaccine, but that is usual.

 

Authorized Types Of Vaccines

As of now, there are three types of authorized vaccines in the United States. Below is the description of those vaccines as how they help the human body to build immunity against the coronavirus. None of the vaccines will infect you with COVID-19.

 

  • mRNA Vaccine: It contains material from the virus causing COVID-19. Inserting such vaccines gives the idea to human immune cells how to make harmless proteins that are unique to the virus. After making copies of these proteins, the white blood cells like T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes destroy the vaccine's genetic material form. This helps them remember how to fight the virus causing COVID-19 if the body gets infected in the future.
  • Protein Subunit Vaccines: In this type of vaccine, a harmless piece of virus causing COVID-19 is inserted instead of the entire germ. In response to this, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes start to destroy the genetic material protein. After this action, these white blood cells remember how to fight against the infecting virus.
  • Vector Vaccine:  Such type of vaccine contains a modified version of a virus similar to coronavirus. The inside shell of these viruses contains the actual virus causing COVID-19. In the presence of this virus, the genetic material gives cells instructions to make a protein, and consequently, our immune cells make copies of the protein. This helps white blood cells to remember how to fight against the virus.

Also Read: Are Homemade Masks Effective In Protecting Against COVID:19?

Authorized And Recommended Vaccines

Now the COVID-19 vaccines are authorized and recommended for use in the United States, it is necessary to understand each of the authorized vaccines. Here, Cheap Medicine Shop will help you provide information about all queries related to the COVID-19 vaccine, such as what to expect after vaccination, ingredients, safety, and effectiveness.

 

As of now, there are three authorized and recommended vaccines to prevent COVID-19, such as:-

Pfizer-BioNTech

Name: BNT162b2

Manufacturer: Pfizer, Inc., and BioNTech

Types of vaccine: mRNA

Number of shots: 2 shots, 21 days apart

Free From: Eggs, Preservatives, Latex

 

On the basis of evidence from clinical trials, the Moderna vaccine was found 95% effective at preventing COVID-19 infection in people who received its two doses without having any evidence of being previously infected.

 

Although few people during its clinical trials were found to have reactogenicity symptoms (side effects that happen within 7 days of getting vaccinated). This happened less often in the people who got the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine than people who got the saline placebo.

 

Who Should Get The COVID-19 vaccine First?

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is recommended for people of age 16 years and older along with these groups, such as:-

  • Frontline essential workers
  • People aged 75 years and older 
  • People aged 65—74 years
  • People aged 16—64 years with underlying severe health complications

 

Who Should Not Take COVID Vaccine?

  • People with severe allergic reactions(anaphylaxis) to any of the ingredients present in the vaccine, such as polyethylene glycol, should not get the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.
  • People experiencing uncertain allergic reactions after the first dose should not get this vaccine even if it is not severe.
  • Immediate allergic reactions mean side effects occurring within 4 hours of vaccination, such as hives, swelling, or wheezing.

 

Moderna

Name: mRNA-1273

Manufacturer: ModernaTX, Inc.

Types of vaccine: mRNA

Number of shots: 2 shots, 21 days apart

Free From: Eggs, Preservatives, Latex

 

Keeping the evidence from clinical trials in mind, the Moderna vaccine was found 94.1% effective at preventing COVID-19 infection in people who received its two doses without having any evidence of being previously infected.

 

Although few people during its clinical trials were admitted to the hospital, this happened less often in the people who got the Moderna vaccine compared to people who got the saline placebo.

 

Who Should Get The COVID-19 vaccine First?

The Moderna vaccine is recommended for people of age 18 years and older along with these groups on priority, such as:-

  • Frontline essential workers
  • People aged 75 years and older 
  • People aged 65—74 years
  • People aged 16—64 years with underlying severe health complications

 

Who Should Not Take COVID Vaccine?

  • People with severe allergic reactions(anaphylaxis) to any of the ingredients present in the vaccine, such as polyethylene glycol, should not get the Moderna vaccine.
  • People experiencing uncertain allergic reactions after the first dose should not get this vaccine even if it is not severe.
  • Immediate allergic reactions mean side effects occurring within 4 hours of vaccination, such as hives, swelling, or wheezing.

 

Johnson & Johnson / Janssen

Name: JNJ-78436735

Manufacturer: Janssen Pharmaceuticals Companies of Johnson & Johnson

Types of vaccine: Viral Vector

Number of shots: 1 shot

Free From: Eggs, Preservatives, Latex

 

Based on clinical trials, the Johnson & Johnson / Janssen vaccine was found to be 66.3% effective at preventing COVID-19 infection in people who received its two doses without having any evidence of being previously infected. People usually have the best protection from the virus 2 weeks after getting vaccinated.

 

The Johnson & Johnson / Janssen vaccine had high efficacy at preventing hospitalization and deaths in getting sick. Evidence also says that this vaccine also protects against asymptomatic infection.

 

Who Should Get The COVID-19 vaccine First?

The Johnson & Johnson / Janssen vaccine is recommended for people of age 18 years and older along with these groups, such as:-

  • Frontline essential workers
  • People aged 75 years and older 
  • People aged 65—74 years
  • People aged 16—64 years with underlying severe health complications

 

Who Should Not Take COVID Vaccine?

  • People with severe allergic reactions(anaphylaxis) to any of the vaccine ingredients, such as polysorbate, should not get the Johnson & Johnson / Janssen vaccine.
  • Immediate allergic reactions mean side effects occurring within 4 hours of vaccination, such as hives, swelling, or wheezing. If you experience any of such side effects, report immediately.
  • In clinical trials, side effects were found common within 7 days of vaccination but were mostly mild to moderate
  • Side effects were found more common in people of age 18–59 years than people of age 60 years and older.

 

Is COVID-19 Vaccine Safe?

Millions of United States citizens have received COVID-19 vaccines, and these vaccines have undergone the most intensive safety monitoring in U.S. history. This monitoring includes using both established and new safety monitoring systems to ensure that COVID-19 vaccines are safe. These vaccines cannot give you COVID-19.

 

A new tool developed by CDC, V-safe is a smartphone application where people with vaccination put their reviews about the COVID-19 vaccine after-vaccination health checker for people who receive COVID-19 vaccines.

 

Having side effects after vaccination is normal. After the COVID-19 vaccination, you may have some side effects. These are the normal signs that indicate your body is building protection against the virus that includes chills or tiredness, which should go away in a few days.

 

How Long Does COVID Vaccine last?

We don’t know how long protection lasts for the vaccinated people. What we do know is that COVID-19 has resulted in very serious illness and death for many people. If you get infected with COVID-19, you also put your loved ones around you at risk of getting the infection. Getting vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine is a safer choice.

 

Still, experts are majorly focusing on both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity.